Towards InAs/InP Quantum-Dash Laser-Based Ultra-High Capacity Heterogeneous Optical Networks: A Review

Mohammed Zahed Mustafa Khan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The unprecedented increase in internet traffic witnessed in the last few years has pushed the community to explore heterogeneous optical networks, including free-space-optics (FSO) communication, radio-over-fiber (RoF), wireless (WL), and their convergent hybrid technologies. This stems from the possibility of seamless integration with the existing fiber-optic backhaul networks while providing much-needed flexibility and scalability. Moreover, efficient optical transceivers, particularly light sources in the form of semiconductor laser diodes, are key in meeting the future demands of the next generation green optical access networks. In this respect, InAs/InP Quantum-dash (Qdash) nanostructure-based lasers have shown tremendous progress in the past few years with applications spanning from a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication to recently, millimeter-wave (MMW) over fiber networks. This waveguide-based laser diode (LD) has demonstrated a rule-changing broad multi-wavelength lasing emission, thanks to the inherent and wavelength-tunable wide gain profile offered by the Qdash active-gain region covering S- to U-band regions. Moreover, exploiting mode-locking and optical injection locking assisting techniques, highly coherent InAs/InP Qdash comb laser source at 1550 nm and 1610 nm have been respectively realized, thus opening a new paradigm for their potential applications in green optical and 5G access networks. In this work, progress on utilizing InAs/InP Qdash LD, supporting several sub-carriers, in energy-efficient ~1550 nm and ~1610 nm WDM heterogeneous optical networks with single-mode-fibers (SMF) has been highlighted, exhibiting aggregate data rates of 11 - 12 Tb/s by employing a single device, and accommodating PAM4 and higher-order 32-QAM modulation schemes. Moreover, the recent deployment of this LD in the RoF domain, targeting MMW frequency band, for convergent fiber-wireless networks, is also summarized, with demonstrated 25 to <100 GHz MMW beat-tone frequency generates and transmission of up to 24 Gb/s.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9960-9988
Number of pages29
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. All rights reserved.


  • Light sources
  • Optical device fabrication
  • Optical fiber communication
  • Optical fibers
  • Optical network units
  • Optical transmitters
  • Passive optical networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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