The development of a grey relational analysis-based composite index for environmental sustainability assessment: Towards a net-zero emissions strategy in Saudi Arabia

Habib M. Alshuwaikhat, Yusuf A. Adenle*, Turki N. Alotaishan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Climate change and environmental sustainability assessment are essential in city planning, design, and smart city advancement. Despite Saudi Arabia's high global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranking, a comprehensive review of extant studies revealed insufficient tools enhancing the policymaking and comprehension of climate change and environmental performance. This paper developed a hybrid green city index (GCI) and grey relational analysis (GRA) composite index for appraising national environmental sustainability via a robust, efficient, effective, and replicable grading process. The index is designed based on two primary considerations. The first is the selection of quality underlying indicators/categories, while the second is the adoption of GRA for conducting the normalization, weighting and aggregation process. These two considerations influenced the proposed composite index, which was later applied to Saudi Arabia as a study area. The results revealed that the environmental sustainability of Saudi Arabia is not significant, with the most outstanding of 0.3127 for 2010. At the category level, the favourable environmental sustainability ranking is between the 2010 and 2012 assessment period, with a gradual decline till 2018. This study's findings are unique as no studies within the context of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region have utilized this study's research approach. Although not all indicators of the proposed index were used in the study area, this study's methodology and outcomes have the beneficial impact of assisting Saudi Arabia's decision-makers across the cities in monitoring the status and progress of implementing its net zero carbon emissions by 2060.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere18192
JournalHeliyon
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Green city index
  • Grey relational analysis
  • Net-zero carbon emissions
  • Saudi cities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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