Specific Entropy

Naef A.A. Qasem, Muhammad M. Generous, Bilal A. Qureshi, Syed M. Zubair*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The specific entropy of saline water is important for designing desalination plants and examining performance and irreversibility. It is a thermodynamic property computed based on the differentiation of the Gibbs free energy with respect to temperature at constant pressure. This chapter explains the thermodynamic approaches, multicomponent models, correlation, and data used to estimate specific entropy at various salinity and temperature values. Besides, the calculated specific entropy values from the correlations and methods are compared and assessed against the experimental data of seawater. A new correlation for NaCl-specific entropy with high accuracy is suggested for a salinity of 0–260 g/kg and ambient conditions. Some correlations and methods are recommended based on their accuracy and operating conditions. Furthermore, the codes used for the investigated methods are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Water
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages25
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NameSpringer Water
VolumePart F1299
ISSN (Print)2364-6934
ISSN (Electronic)2364-8198

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Correlations
  • Irreversibility
  • Methods
  • Saline water
  • Specific entropy
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Specific Entropy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this