Specific Enthalpy

Naef A.A. Qasem, Muhammad M. Generous, Bilal A. Qureshi, Syed M. Zubair*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The specific enthalpy of saline water is one of the critical thermodynamic properties used in estimating the thermal energy of desalination and salt separation processes. This chapter explains the thermodynamic approaches, multicomponent models, correlation, and data used to estimate specific enthalpy at various salinity and temperature values. A new correlation for NaCl-specific enthalpy with high accuracy is suggested for a salinity of 0–260 g/kg and ambient conditions. Moreover, the evaluated specific enthalpy values from the correlations and methods are compared and assessed using experimental data of the specific enthalpy of seawater. Based on their accuracy and operating conditions, some correlations and methods are recommended. Furthermore, the codes used for estimating the investigated specific enthalpy are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Water
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages29
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NameSpringer Water
VolumePart F1299
ISSN (Print)2364-6934
ISSN (Electronic)2364-8198

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Correlations
  • Energy
  • Methods
  • Saline water
  • Specific enthalpy
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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