Solar and Wind Energy Integrated System Frequency Control: A Critical Review on Recent Developments

Md Shafiul Alam*, Tanzi Ahmed Chowdhury, Abhishak Dhar, Fahad Saleh Al-Ismail, M. S.H. Choudhury, Md Shafiullah, Md Ismail Hossain, Md Alamgir Hossain, Aasim Ullah, Syed Masiur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


A paradigm shift in power systems is observed due to the massive integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) as distributed generators. Mainly, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind generators are extensively integrated with the modern power system to facilitate green efforts in the electrical energy sector. However, integrating these RESs destabilizes the frequency of the modern power system. Hitherto, the frequency control has not drawn sufficient attention due to the reduced inertia and complex control of power electronic converters associated with renewable energy conversion systems. Thus, this article provides a critical summary on the frequency control of solar PV and wind-integrated systems. The frequency control issues with advanced techniques, including inertia emulation, de-loading, and grid-forming, are summarized. Moreover, several cutting-edge devices in frequency control are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to control the frequency of high-level RESs integrated systems are well documented. The possible improvements of existing approaches are outlined. The key research areas are identified, and future research directions are mentioned so that cutting-edge technologies can be adopted, making the review article unique compared to the existing reviews. The article could be an excellent foundation and guidance for industry personnel, researchers, and academicians.

Original languageEnglish
Article number812
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) through direct Funded project No. INRE2209.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • battery
  • converter
  • energy storage
  • frequency control
  • inertia emulation
  • renewable energy resources
  • supercapacitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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