A paradigm shift in power systems is observed due to the massive integration of renewable energy sources (RESs) as distributed generators. Mainly, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind generators are extensively integrated with the modern power system to facilitate green efforts in the electrical energy sector. However, integrating these RESs destabilizes the frequency of the modern power system. Hitherto, the frequency control has not drawn sufficient attention due to the reduced inertia and complex control of power electronic converters associated with renewable energy conversion systems. Thus, this article provides a critical summary on the frequency control of solar PV and wind-integrated systems. The frequency control issues with advanced techniques, including inertia emulation, de-loading, and grid-forming, are summarized. Moreover, several cutting-edge devices in frequency control are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to control the frequency of high-level RESs integrated systems are well documented. The possible improvements of existing approaches are outlined. The key research areas are identified, and future research directions are mentioned so that cutting-edge technologies can be adopted, making the review article unique compared to the existing reviews. The article could be an excellent foundation and guidance for industry personnel, researchers, and academicians.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) through direct Funded project No. INRE2209.
© 2023 by the authors.
- energy storage
- frequency control
- inertia emulation
- renewable energy resources
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Control and Optimization
- Energy (miscellaneous)
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment