Self-Balancing System and Control Design for Two-Wheeled Single-Track Vehicles

Ammar Alzaydi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study presents a novel approach to achieve self-balance by employing a proportional integral derivative (PID) control system. Simply put, the innovative design consists of two electric ducted fans (EDF) that propel air against the direction of fall and thereby maintain balance. If these motors are allowed to move in two degrees of freedom, the EDF motors will propel and reduce weight of the two-wheeler while maintaining stability. To the best of our knowledge, no study has proposed a system that simultaneously provides propulsion and weight reduction along with achieving self-balance. The working mechanism of the utilized PID arducopter controller is elucidated which utilizes an IMU sensor and employs a nonlinear complementary filter on the special orthogonal group to determine the lean angles at any instant of time and a feedback loop to maintain the system's position at the desired upright zero degrees lean angle. Next, the proposed PID controller is first tested on a small-scale model to validate the developed concept to achieve self-balance by employing EDF motors. After achieving successful results on the small-scale model and thereby attaining the step of validation, the proposed concept is tested against a full-scale model (motorbike) by designing the mechanical and electrical parts. The methodology is divided into three major steps - mechanical parts design and manufacture, electrical components design and control system design. Furthermore, three mechanisms are designed to control steering, braking and throttle via a remote transmitter receiver control and autonomous control.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication20th International Learning and Technology Conference, L and T 2023
EditorsAkila Sarirete, Zain Balfagih, Tayeb Brahimi, Mohamed F. El-Amin Mousa, Passent M. Elkafrawy
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9798350300307
StatePublished - 2023
Event20th International Learning and Technology Conference, L and T 2023 - Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Duration: 26 Jan 2023 → …

Publication series

Name20th International Learning and Technology Conference, L and T 2023


Conference20th International Learning and Technology Conference, L and T 2023
Country/TerritorySaudi Arabia
Period26/01/23 → …

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.


  • Control Design
  • Self-Balancing
  • Single-Track
  • Two-Wheeled
  • Vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Media Technology
  • Control and Optimization
  • Education


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