Scale-up effect analysis and modeling of liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed risers using multigene genetic programming

Shaikh A. Razzak*, Saddam A. Al-Hammadi, Syed M. Rahman, Mohammad R. Quddus, Mohammad M. Hossain, Jesse Zhu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Understanding scale-up effects on the hydrodynamics of a liquid‒solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) unit requires both experimental and theoretical analysis. We implement multigene genetic programming (MGGP) to investigate the solid holdup and distribution in three LSCFB systems with different heights. In addition to data obtained here, we also use a portion of data sets of LSCFB systems developed by Zheng (1999) and Liang et al. (1996). Model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data in both radial and axial directions and at different normalized superficial liquid and solid velocities. The radial profiles of the solid holdup are approximately identical at a fixed average cross-sectional solid holdup for the three LSCFB systems studied. Statistical performance indicators including the mean absolute percentage error (6.19%) and correlation coefficient (0.985) are within an acceptable range. The results suggest that a MGGP modeling approach is suitable for predicting the solid holdup and distribution of a scaled-up LSCFB system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge support provided by King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the Science & Technology Unit at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) for funding of this work, project No. NSTIP # 13-WAT96-04, as part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences


  • Fluidization
  • Liquid‒solid circulating fluidized bed
  • Multigene genetic programming
  • Normalized superficial liquid velocity
  • Scale-up effect
  • Solid holdup

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Materials Science (all)


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