Naphtha is the main feedstock used in the production of gasoline and benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) aromatics, which are widely applied as chemical intermediates in the fields of packaging, synthetic fibers, and solvents. This article reviews the recent literature regarding the catalytic conversion of naphtha to higher-value BTX in terms of catalysts used, catalyst properties, reaction mechanisms, kinetic modeling, operating conditions, and product selectivity. Most studies focused on ZSM-5 and ZSM-5 modified using Ga, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, W, Sn, etc. The promoting effects of metals and catalyst properties on naphtha conversion and the selectivity toward aromatics were critically analyzed. Pt-promoted zeolite L exhibited an excellent catalytic performance in naphtha aromatization for the selective production of benzene using n-hexane. Other studies investigated different types of zeolites, such as ZSM-11, BEA, X, Y, MOR, ZRP, and TsVM high-silica zeolites, with distinct properties. Nonzeolitic catalysts included Pt, Re, and Sn supported on Al2O3; activated carbon; and mesoporous silicates (MCM-41 and SBA-15). Finally, the challenges and perspectives of naphtha aromatization related to emerging naphtha types, cofeeding, and improved catalysts are highlighted.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Center for Refining and Advanced Chemicals (CRAC) at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The support of KFUPM, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, is also highly appreciated.
© 2023 American Chemical Society.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering (all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology