Review of Smart City Energy Modeling in Southeast Asia

Md Shafiullah*, Saidur Rahman*, Binash Imteyaz, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Md Ismail Hossain, Syed Masiur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The Southeast Asian region has been eagerly exploring the concepts of smart city initiatives in recent years due to the enormous opportunities and potential. The initiatives are in line with their plan to promote energy efficiency, phase down/out fossil fuel-based generation, and reduce greenhouse gas emission intensity and electrification of various sectors in addition to renewable energy targets and policies to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 or 2060. However, the major challenges for these countries are related to leadership, governance, citizen support, investment, human capacity, smart device heterogeneity, and efficient modeling and management of resources, especially the energy systems. An intelligent energy system is one of the most significant components for any functional smart city, where artificial intelligence (AI), the internet of things (IoT), and big data are expected to tackle various existing and evolving challenges. This article starts with a brief discussion of smart city concepts and implementation challenges. Then, it identifies different types of smart city initiatives in Southeast Asian countries focusing on energy systems. In addition, the article investigates the status of smart systems in energy generation and storage, infrastructure, and model development. It identifies the unique challenges of these countries in implementing smart energy systems. It critically reviews many available energy modeling approaches and addresses their limitations and strengths, focusing on the region. Moreover, it also provides a preliminary framework for a successful energy system that exploits AI, IoT, and big data. Finally, the roadmap for a successful energy system requires appropriate policy development, innovative technological solutions, human capacity building, and enhancement of the effectiveness of current energy systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-99
Number of pages28
JournalSmart Cities
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • challenges
  • efficient energy management
  • energy modeling
  • overview
  • renewable energy
  • smart city

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urban Studies
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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