Residential satisfaction of vertical urban settlements in Hong Kong

Muizz Oladapo Sanni-Anibire*, Yusuf A. Adenle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose: Vertical urban settlements are becoming the predominant form of contemporary urban design in response to population increase and rapid urbanization. These developments are, however, perceived to be poorly designed and incongruent with the users’ needs. The purpose of this study was to present a resident satisfaction assessment of Hong Kong’s vertical settlements. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature was conducted on the concept of vertical urbanism, residential satisfaction and postoccupancy evaluation. Fifty performance indicators were classified into three groups including indoor environment, safety and maintenance; furniture, utilities and spaces; and privacy, appearance and city life. These indicators were used to develop a Web-based questionnaire administered to residents in the three administrative regions of Hong Kong. Ninety-eight respondents participated in the study, and the results were analyzed using the resident satisfaction index and the overall satisfaction index. A multilinear regression analysis was also made to develop a model describing the most relevant performance indicators for determining the overall residential satisfaction. Findings: The results revealed that residents expressed dissatisfaction with performance indicators, including “level of noise generated from outside the building (neighboring buildings, traffic, noise, etc.),” “variation and stability of indoor temperature,” “sustainable design of the building’s environment (cyclability, walkability, electric charging stations, etc.),” “availability and capacity of car parking,” “size and adequacy of spaces for social interaction” and “considerations for occupants with special needs (disabled, aged people, children, occupants with a medical condition, etc.).” The results also revealed that some indicators such as the maintenance of elevators, adequate interior space and surrounding areas were considered as significantly influencing residential satisfaction. Similarly, the building height and wind-induced motion were not significantly influencing residential satisfaction. The results also revealed that a multilinear Regression model with five variables and an adjusted R2 value of 93% could estimate the overall residential satisfaction. Originality/value: The concept of vertical urban design is the new paradigm in the shaping of future cities. The originality of this study is its adoption of post-occupancy evaluation to assess occupants’ residential satisfaction. As well as the determination of factors that should inform the planning, design and management of vertical urban settlements. Thus, the study has significant implications for research in vertical urban development, as well as the professional practice of building and urban planners, designers and managers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Engineering, Design and Technology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • Habitability
  • Tall buildings
  • Urban design
  • User satisfaction
  • Vertical urbanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Engineering


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