Real time-based under frequency control and energy management of microgrids

Muhammed Y. Worku*, Mohamed A. Hassan, Mohamed A. Abido

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


In this paper, an efficient under frequency control and the energy management of a distributed energy resources (DERs)-based microgrid is presented. The microgrid is composed of a photovoltaic (PV), double-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind and diesel generator with critical and non-critical loads. The system model and the control strategy are developed in a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The coordination and power management of the DERs in both grid-connected and islanded operation modes are implemented. During power imbalances and frequency fluctuations caused by fault or islanding, an advanced automatic load shedding control is implemented to regulate and maintain the microgrid frequency at its rated value. One distinct feature implemented for the load shedding operation is that highly unbalanced critical loads are connected to the microgrid. The diesel generator provides the required inertia in the islanded mode to maintain the microgrid rated frequency by operating in the isochronous mode. The International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) medium voltage (MV) test bench system is used to implement the DERs and their controller. The proposed control approach has potential applications for the complete operation of microgrids by properly controlling the power, voltage and frequency in both grid-connected and island modes. The real time digital simulator results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control scheme in grid connected, island and fault conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1487
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Islanding
  • Load shedding
  • Microgrid
  • RTDS
  • Under frequency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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