Novel materials for dispersive (micro) solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples: A review

Muhammad Sajid*, Mazen Khaled Nazal, Ihsanullah Ihsanullah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are hazardous environmental pollutants that possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in environmental water samples are very low, and it is challenging to detect such levels directly by the analytical instrumentation. Thus, the extraction of PAHs using suitable extraction methodology is required for sample cleanup and analyte enrichment. Dispersive solid-phase extraction has several advantages over conventional approaches for the extraction of PAHs from environmental water samples. In this article, we critically evaluate the role of different nano and micro sorbent materials employed in the extraction of PAHs. Carbon-based nanomaterials, metal-organic frameworks, polymeric nanocomposites, ionic-liquid based composites, and silica-based materials are explicitly covered. This review also provides insight on functional components of all types of sorbents and their way of interaction with PAHs. The factors affecting the dispersive (micro) solid phase extraction of PAHs such as the design of the sorbent, the ratio of functional material to magnetic core, sample volume, amount of sorbent, extraction and desorption times, desorption solvent and its volume, salt addition, and sample pH are critically appraised. Finally, a brief account on the accomplishments, limitations, and challenges associated with such methods is provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-262
Number of pages17
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume1141
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Environmental analysis
  • Magnetic extractions
  • Metal-organic frameworks
  • Nanomaterials
  • PAHs
  • Water analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy

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