Multi-objective optimization of a photovoltaic-wind- grid connected system to power reverse osmosis desalination plant

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21 Scopus citations


Utilizing fossil fuel for powering desalination plants is associated with release of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. Alternately, renewable energy sources are clean and environmentally friendly. This paper develops a multi-objective model based on mixed-integer programming approach to size a grid-connected Photovoltaic-wind system. The model objectives consider the economical aspect by minimizing the total life cycle cost, and the non-economical aspects by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and the grid contribution share. The hybrid system covers the energy demand of a Reverse Osmosis desalination plant that is used to supply fresh water to a residential area in Saudi Arabia. The model generates a set of Pareto-optima solutions from which decision-makers can choose according to their preferences. Three plans are selected from the Pareto-optima solutions to show the exchangeability between the renewable energy system and the grid. For instance, with 100 photovoltaic modules and 94 wind turbines, the system can supply 18% of the plant's energy requirements while emitting the least amount of carbon dioxide (90,899 kgCO2-eq/yr). Furthermore, the energy cost is 0.0557 $/kWh, which is less than the cost of kWh purchased from the grid. The main findings and managerial insights are analyzed from economic and environmental perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123888
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for providing the facilities required to conduct this study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • MILP
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Photovoltaic-wind system
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Water desalination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Energy (all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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