Modeling the modal shift towards a more sustainable transport by stated preference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Zaher Youssef, Habib Alshuwaikhat*, Imran Reza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The need to gain a comprehensive understanding of road travelers’ choice of mode and their perceptions of using sustainable urban mobility modes have evolved to shape the form of future transport planning and policymaking. To combat the concern of growing traffic congestion in Riyadh City, the government of Saudi Arabia designed and introduced a sustainable public transport project named “Riyadh Metro”. This study explores the potential commuters’ perception towards the Metro services and the factors that limit their propensity to use Metro and understand the tradeoffs that the individuals make when they are faced with a combination of mode characteristics (e.g., travel time, price, walking time). The stated preferences experiment was conducted on a sample from the Riyadh neighborhood by structured interviews. A discrete choice model based on binary logistic regression has been developed. The coefficient of travel attribute: travel time, fuel cost, Metro fare, and walking time was found to be statistically significant with a different effect on mode choice. The elasticity of the coefficient showed that an increase in the fuel price by 10% would increase the metro ridership by 5.3% and reduce car dependency. Decreasing the walking time by 5 min to the metro station will increase the metro ridership by 22%. Furthermore, the study revealed that implementing a 1 SAR/hour parking charge will decrease car dependency by 14%. Increase Metro fare by 10% will decrease Metro ridership by 6.9%. The socioeconomic factors coefficient shows a marginal effect on the choice decision of passengers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number337
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Mass transit
  • Riyadh metro
  • Stated preferences
  • Sustainable mode of transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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