Management of greenhouse gas emissions from maritime operations - Challenges and mitigation opportunities

A. N. Khondaker, Syed Masiur Rahman*, Rouf Ahmad Khan, Karim Malik, Musah Ahmed Rufai Muhyedeen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Maritime activities are one of the important sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. By 2050, the GHG emissions are expected to increase by at least 50% over the 2007 levels. The currently practiced GHG emission mitigation measures include adoption of appropriate energy sources including conventional, renewable, and alternative energy sources or their blends; development and application of cleaner technological and operational mechanisms; adoption of intermodal shifting and demand management-based approaches; and development of sustainable shipping governance system. Each mitigation measure is related to certain implementation challenges. This study investigated different estimations of GHG emissions, the relevant mitigation options, and associated challenges, and analysed a possible international mitigation governance system, and proposed approaches to overcome barriers of mitigation options. It is concluded that the pertinent global community should take initiatives to improve the understanding of respective merits of different mitigation options, establish reduction potential and effectiveness of each viable measure, and assess the potential impacts of mitigation measures with particular reference to the global trade and market distortions. The persuasive cooperation with strong commitment among decision makers and stakeholders will best ensure development and implementation of sustainable mitigation measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-336
Number of pages31
JournalInternational Journal of Global Warming
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • IMO
  • International Maritime Organization
  • Maritime operations
  • Mitigation measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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