Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Electron Transport Layers for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

Jiaqi Zhang, Jorge C.D. Faria, Maurizio Morbidoni, Yoann Porte, Claire H. Burgess, Khallil Harrabi, Martyn A. McLachlan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Processing temperature is highlighted as a convenient means of controlling the optical and charge transport properties of solution processed electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells. Using the well-studied active layer – poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct – the influence of ETL processing temperatures from 25 to 450 °C is shown, reporting the role of crystallinity, structure, charge transport, and Fermi level (EF) on numerous device performance characteristics. It has been determined that an exceptionally low temperature processed ETL (110 °C) increases device power conversion efficiency by a factor greater than 50% compared with a high temperature (450 °C) processed ETL. Modulations in device series and shunt resistance, induced by changes in the ETL transport properties, are observed in parallel to significant changes in device open circuit voltage attributed to changes on the EF of the ETLs. This work highlights the importance of interlayer control in multilayer photovoltaic devices and presents a convenient material compatible with future flexible and roll-to-roll processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1600008
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J. Zhang gratefully acknowledges the China Scholarship Council (CSC) for financial support through the CSC scholarship scheme. K. Harrabi and M. A. McLachlan thank the National Science, Technology and Innovation Program of KACST for funding this research under Project No. 12-ENE2379-04. J. C. D. Faria is supported by the EPSRC through the center for doctoral training in plastic electronics (EP/037515/1). All authors thank Dr. J. H. Bannock and Prof. J. C. de Melo (Imperial, Chemistry) for kindly supplying the P3HT used in the study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • ZnO
  • electron transport
  • organic photovoltaic
  • oxide electronics
  • solution processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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