Involving high penetration level of constant power loads

Mohamed A. Hassan*, Muhammed Y. Worku, Abdelfattah A. Eladl, Mohammed A. Abido

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Nowadays, behaving as constant power loads (CPLs), rectifiers and voltage regulators are extensively used in microgrids (MGs). The MG dynamic behavior challenges both stability and control effectiveness in the presence of CPLs. CPLs characteristics such as negative incremental resistance, synchronization, and control loop dynamic with similar frequency range of the inverter disturb severely the MG stability. Additionally, the MG stability problem will be more sophisticated with a high penetration level of CPLs in MGs. The stability analysis becomes more essential especially with high-penetrated CPLs. In this paper, the dynamic stability performance of an MG involving a high penetration level of CPLs is analyzed and investigated. An autonomous MG engaging a number of CPLs and inverter distributed generations (DGs) is modeled and designed using MATLAB. Voltage, current, and power controllers are optimally designed, controlling the inverter DGs output. A power droop controller is implemented to share the output DGs powers. Meanwhile, the current and voltage controllers are employed to control the output voltage and current of all DGs. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is essentially utilized to synchronize the CPLs with the MG. The controller gains of the inverters, CPLs, power sharing control, and PLL are optimally devised using particle swarm optimization (PSO). As a weighted objective function, the error in the DC voltage of the CPL and active power of the DG is minimized in the optimal problem based on the time-domain simulation. Under the presence of high penetrated CPLs, all controllers are coordinately tuned to ensure an enhanced dynamic stability of the MG. The impact of the highly penetrated CPLs on the MG dynamic stability is investigated. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, different disturbances are applied. The analysis shows that the MG system experiences the instability challenges due to the high penetrated CPLs. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method to improve the MG dynamic stability performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number922
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Constant power load
  • Dynamic stability
  • Microgrid
  • Optimization
  • PLL
  • Power-sharing control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • General Mathematics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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