Integration of Hybrid Networks, AI, Ultra Massive-MIMO, THz Frequency, and FBMC Modulation Toward 6G Requirements: A Review

Nura Abdalrhman Alhaj, Mohd Faizal Jamlos*, Sulastri Abdul Manap, Samah Abdelsalam*, Abdelmoneim A. Bakhit, Rizalman Mamat, Mohd Aminudin Jamlos, Mohammed Salih Mohammed Gismalla*, Mosab Hamdan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The fifth-generation (5G) wireless communications have been deployed in many countries with the following features: wireless networks at 20 Gbps as peak data rate, a latency of 1-ms, reliability of 99.999%, maximum mobility of 500 km/h, a bandwidth of 1-GHz, and a capacity of 106 up to Mbps/m2. Nonetheless, the rapid growth of applications, such as extended/virtual reality (XR/VR), online gaming, telemedicine, cloud computing, smart cities, the Internet of Everything (IoE), and others, demand lower latency, higher data rates, ubiquitous coverage, and better reliability. These higher requirements are the main problems that have challenged 5G while concurrently encouraging researchers and practitioners to introduce viable solutions. In this review paper, the sixth-generation (6G) technology could solve the 5G limitations, achieve higher requirements, and support future applications. The integration of multiple access techniques, terahertz (THz), visible light communications (VLC), ultra-massive multiple-input multiple-output ( μm -MIMO), hybrid networks, cell-free massive MIMO, and artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning (ML) have been proposed for 6G. The main contributions of this paper are a comprehensive review of the 6G vision, KPIs (key performance indicators), and advanced potential technologies proposed with operation principles. Besides, this paper reviewed multiple access and modulation techniques, concentrating on Filter-Bank Multicarrier (FBMC) as a potential technology for 6G. This paper ends by discussing potential applications with challenges and lessons identified from prior studies to pave the path for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-513
Number of pages31
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors.


  • 6G
  • multicarrier modulation technique
  • terahertz communication
  • ultra-massive multi-input multi-output
  • visible light communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science


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