Integrated Operation Centers in Smart Cities: A Humanitarian Engineering Perspective

Basem Almadani, Farouq Aliyu*, Abdulrahman Aliyu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The United Nations predicted that 68% of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2050. Currently, the resources in urban areas are barely enough to cater to the inhabitants’ needs. Scientists believe that automation is the solution. Hence, they believe that Smart Cities could offer a sustainable solution for the increasing rural-to-urban migration because they improve the quality of service by efficiently managing the limited resources the citizens share. However, community laws stipulate when and who governs the cities. These officials are responsible for decision making, which limits the quality of automation and smartness of the city. Integrated Operation Centers (IOCs) help to minimize this limitation. They gather information, process it, and visualize it for the managers. Thus, IOCs enable them to make informed and quick decisions on critical issues. This paper processed 64 conferences and journals on IOCs using the PRISMA method. The systematic literature review investigates the applications of IOCs, and we present a taxonomy for them. Also, we looked at how they impact humanity and environmental sustainability. We found that IOCs help to coordinate automation, disaster response, and security. They also help to conserve natural resources. Finally, we uncover some challenges of implementing IOCs and possible research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11101
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The APC was funded by the Deanship of Research Oversight and Coordination (DROC), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Humanitarian Computing
  • Integrated Operation Centers
  • Internet of Things
  • Smart City

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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