Influence of mix composition on the properties of recycled aggregate concrete

Abdulrahman Zaben, Mohammed Maslehuddin*, Omar S.B. Al-Amoudi, Salah U. Al-Dulaijan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


There is an increasing trend towards using recycled aggregate (RA) in concrete due to the shortage of high quality natural aggregates. The use of RA in concrete results in the conservation of natural resources, protects the environment and encourages sustainable construction. Though some studies have been conducted on the use of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC), the effect of mixture composition on its properties has not been well addressed. In the reported study, the effect of mixture composition, namely cement content and water/cement ratio and the proportion of RA on the mechanical properties of RAC was evaluated, with the intention of developing varying grades of RAC. As reported in earlier studies, the properties of RAC were generally inferior to that of normal aggregate concrete (NAC). Notwithstanding this, RAC with acceptable mechanical properties can be produced utilizing RA, for example RAC with low strength can be used in non-structural applications. The construction industry should be encouraged to use RAC in building construction; as its use will lead to technical, economic and environmental benefits. Further, the use of RAC will lead to a sustainable development of the construction industry, particularly in regions that lack good quality natural aggregates. Based on the data developed in the reported study, the following quantities of RA are recommended to produce RAC: (i) 20% to produce low strength (20–30 MPa) concrete, (ii) 40% to produce medium (30–50 MPa) concrete and high strength (more than 50 MPa) concrete. Mathematical correlations between the mechanical properties of RAC with varying mix design parameters, such as cement content and water cement ratio and the quantity of RA, are also reported. These correlations can be used to predict the properties of RAC prepared with other proportions of RA and mix design parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2939-2951
Number of pages13
JournalStructural Concrete
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 fib. International Federation for Structural Concrete


  • bond strength
  • compressive strength
  • mixture proportions
  • modulus of elasticity
  • morphology
  • recycled aggregate concrete
  • tensile strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials


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