Impact of Virtual Learning on Architectural Engineering and Education: The Pandemic Lockdown in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Alhaji Mohammed*, Baqer M. Al-Ramadan, Wahhaj Ahmed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Owing to the recent global emergence of COVID-19 and its effects on education, particularly in Saudi Arabia, schools in the Kingdom have adopted online virtual learning styles. This is a quick reaction to the government's decision to close all schools to control the spread of the coronavirus. This study examines the effects of virtual learning on architectural engineering and architecture education in the context of Saudi Arabia's Pandemic Lockdown. The study collected population-representative survey data from 146 eligible respondents via a five-scale Likert questionnaire survey distributed among Saudi university students. The statistical package SPSS 28.0 was used to analyze the results, which included simple descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation. The study discovered that the pandemic had affected architecture and architectural engineering teaching and learning pedagogy, online assessment and examination, the environment and resources for teaching and learning, and the future application of online teaching and learning. The study reveals a strong reluctance to recommend online learning in the future for both studio- and lab-type lessons, because the available online learning hardware tools for studio-type instruction are insufficient. The findings of this study will help handle various architecture and architectural engineering courses in times of emergency that necessitates switching to online classes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04023041
JournalJournal of Architectural Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Society of Civil Engineers.


  • Architectural/building engineering
  • Architecture
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Online education
  • Saudi Arabia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Architecture
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts


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