Impact of Manikin Display on Perception of Spatial Planning

Mathew Schwartz, Brandon Haworth, Muhammad Usman, Petros Faloutsos, Mubbasir Kapadia

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


The visualization of spaces, both virtual and built, has long been an important part of the environment design process. Industry tools to visualize occupancy have grown from simple drop-in stock photos post-design to real-time crowds simulations. However, while treatment of visualization and collaborative design processes has long been discussed in the HCI and Architecture communities, these inclusive design methods are infrequently seen in architecture education (e.g. studio) and practice, nor implemented in licensure requirements-leaving designers to think about the future occupants on their own. While there are strong indicators of the impact visualization modality and rendering style have on perception of scale and space, little has been explored regarding how we represent the human form with respect to these design tools and practices. We present findings from a novel online interactive space planning and estimation study that examines the effects of 3 common building visualization modalities in the design process with 3 human form modalities extracted from the architecture literature. Results indicate the type of visualization changes the number of occupants estimated, and that designers prefer integrated manikins within building models when estimating space usage, although their acceptance was equally divided between 2D and 3D. Our findings lay the foundation for new and focused design tools integrating human form and factors at building scale.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - SAP 2022
Subtitle of host publicationACM Symposium on Applied Perception
EditorsStephen N. Spencer
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery, Inc
ISBN (Electronic)9781450394550
StatePublished - 22 Sep 2022
Event19th ACM Symposium on Applied Perception, SAP 2022 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 22 Sep 202223 Sep 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings - SAP 2022: ACM Symposium on Applied Perception


Conference19th ACM Symposium on Applied Perception, SAP 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Okhyun Des lauriers for assistance in the environment modeling. We also thank Serena DeStefani for consulting on our data analysis. The research was supported in part by NSERC Discovery, Canada [funding reference number RGPIN-2021-03541] and in part by NSF awards: IIS-1703883, IIS-1955404, IIS-1955365, RETTL-2119265, and EAGER-2122119. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Grant Award Number 22STESE00001 01 01." Disclaimer. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.”

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 ACM.


  • architectural design
  • human factors
  • visualization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Software
  • Applied Mathematics


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