Impact of climate indicators on the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia

Mohammad A.M. Abdel-Aal, Abdelrahman E.E. Eltoukhy*, Mohammad A. Nabhan, Mohammad M. AlDurgam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has left a major impact on daily lifestyle and human activities. Many recent studies confirmed that the COVID-19 pandemic has human-to-human transmissibility. Additional studies claimed that other factors affect the viability, transmissibility, and propagation range of COVID-19. The effect of weather factors on the spread of COVID-19 has gained much attention among researchers. The current study investigates the relationship between climate indicators and daily detected COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the top five cities with confirmed cases. The examined climate indicators were temperature (°F), dew point (°F), humidity (%), wind speed (mph), and pressure (Hg). Using data from Spring 2020 and 2021, we conducted spatio-temporal correlation, regression, and time series analyses. The results provide preliminary evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic spread in most of the considered cities is significantly correlated with temperature (positive correlation) and pressure (negative correlation). The discrepancies in the results from different cites addressed in this study suggest that non-meteorological factors need to be explored in conjunction with weather attributes in a sufficiently long-term analysis to provide meaningful policy measures for the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20449-20462
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number14
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • COVID-19
  • Climate indicators
  • Coronavirus
  • Correlation tests
  • Dew point
  • Humidity
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Wind speed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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