High adsorptive performance of chitosan-microalgae-carbon-doped TiO2 (kronos)/ salicylaldehyde for brilliant green dye adsorption: Optimization and mechanistic approach

Elmira Kashi, S. N. Surip, Tumirah Khadiran, Wan Izhan Nawawi, Yannis De Luna, Zaher Mundher Yaseen, Ali H. Jawad*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

A composite of chitosan biopolymer with microalgae and commercial carbon-doped titanium dioxide (kronos) was modified by grafting an aromatic aldehyde (salicylaldehyde) in a hydrothermal process for the removal of brilliant green (BG) dye. The resulting Schiff's base Chitosan-Microalgae-TiO2 kronos/Salicylaldehyde (CsMaTk/S) material was characterised using various analytical methods (conclusive of physical properties using BET surface analysis method, elemental analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS and point of zero charge). Box Behnken Design was utilised for the optimisation of the three input variables, i.e., adsorbent dose, pH of the media and contact time. The optimum conditions appointed by the optimisation process were further affirmed by the desirability test and employed in the equilibrium studies in batch mode and the results exhibited a better fit towards the pseudo-second-order kinetic model as well as Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 957.0 mg/g. Furthermore, the reusability study displayed the adsorptive performance of CsMaTk/S remains effective throughout five adsorption cycles. The possible interactions between the dye molecules and the surface of the adsorbent were derived based on the analyses performed and the electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, Yoshida-H bonding, π-π and n-π interactions are concluded to be the responsible forces in this adsorption process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129147
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Volume259
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Adsorption mechanism
  • Brilliant green
  • Chitosan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

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