Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Industrial Processes and Product Use Sector of Saudi Arabia—An Emerging Challenge

Muhammad Muhitur Rahman*, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman, Saidur R. Chowdhury, Alaeldeen Elhaj, Shaikh Abdur Razzak, Syed Abu Shoaib, Md Kamrul Islam, Mohammed Monirul Islam, Sayeed Rushd, Syed Masiur Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been experiencing consistent growth in industrial processes and product use (IPPU). The IPPU’s emission has been following an increasing trend. This study investigated time-series and cross-sectional analyses of the IPPU sector. Petrochemical, iron and steel, and cement production are the leading source categories in the Kingdom. In recent years, aluminum, zinc, and titanium dioxide production industries were established. During the last ten years, a significant growth was observed in steel, ethylene, direct reduce iron (DRI), and cement production. The growth of this sector depends on many factors, including domestic and international demand, socioeconomic conditions, and the availability of feedstock. The emissions from IPPU without considering energy use was 78 million tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) in 2020, and the cement industry was the highest emitter (35.5%), followed by petrochemical (32.3%) and iron and steel industries (16.8%). A scenario-based projection analysis was performed to estimate the range of emissions for the years up to 2050. The results show that the total emissions could reach between 199 and 426 million tons of CO2eq in 2050. The Kingdom has started initiatives that mainly focus on climate change adaptation and economic divergence with mitigation co-benefits. In general, the focus of such initiatives is the energy sector. However, the timely accomplishment of the Saudi Vision 2030 and Saudi Green Initiative will affect mitigation scenarios significantly, including in the IPPU sector. The mitigation opportunities for this sector include (i) energy efficiency, (ii) emissions efficiency, (iii) material efficiency, (iv) the re-use of materials and recycling of products, (v) intensive and longer use of products, and (vi) demand management. The results of this study will support the Kingdom in developing an appropriate climate change mitigation roadmap.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7388
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the support received from Deanship of Scientific Research at King Faisal University (KFU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, and Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Saudi Arabia.

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research in the King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, through the project number GRANT 656.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Saudi Vision 2030
  • cement
  • climate change
  • greenhouse gas
  • industrial material
  • petrochemicals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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