Greenhouse Gas Emission Dynamics of Saudi Arabia: Potential of Hydrogen Fuel for Emission Footprint Reduction

Adeola Akinpelu, Md Shafiul Alam, Md Shafiullah*, Syed Masiur Rahman*, Fahad Saleh Al-Ismail

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The growth of population, gross domestic product (GDP), and urbanization have led to an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The leading GHG-emitting sectors are electricity generation, road transportation, cement, chemicals, refinery, iron, and steel. However, the KSA is working to lead the global energy sustainability campaign to reach net zero GHG emissions by 2060. In addition, the country is working to establish a framework for the circular carbon economy (CCE), in which hydrogen acts as a transversal facilitator. To cut down on greenhouse gas emissions, the Kingdom is also building several facilities, such as the NEOM green hydrogen project. The main objective of the article is to critically review the current GHG emission dynamics of the KSA, including major GHG emission driving forces and prominent emission sectors. Then, the role of hydrogen in GHG emission reduction will be explored. Finally, the researchers and decision makers will find the helpful discussions and recommendations in deciding on appropriate mitigation measures and technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5639
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the Deanship of Research Oversight and Coordination (DROC) at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) for funding this work through project no. ER221005.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Saudi Arabia
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • hydrogen
  • renewable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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