Green carbonaceous material‒fibrous silica-titania composite photocatalysts for enhanced degradation of toxic 2-chlorophenol

M. S. Azami, A. A. Jalil*, N. S. Hassan, I. Hussain, A. A. Fauzi, M. A.A. Aziz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


In this work, fibrous silica-titania (FST) was successfully prepared by the microemulsion method prior to the addition of three types of carbonaceous materials: graphitic-carbon nitride, g-C3N4 (CN), graphene nanoplatelets (GN), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT (CNT), via a solid-state microwave irradiation technique. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis DRS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XPS and ESR, while their photoactivity was examined on the degradation of toxic 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The result demonstrated that the initial reaction rate was in the following order: CNFST (5.1 × 10–3 mM min-1) > GNFST (2.5 × 10–3 mM min-1) > CNTFST (2.3 × 10–3 mM min-1). The best performance was due to the polymeric structure of g-C3N4 with a good dispersion of C and N on the surface FST. This dispersion contributed towards an appropriate quantity of defect sites, as a consequence of the greater interaction between g-C3N4 and the FST support, that led to narrowed of band gap energy (2.98 eV to 2.10 eV). The effect of scavenger and ESR studies confirmed that the photodegradation over CNFST occurred via a Z-scheme mechanism. It is noteworthy that the addition of green carbonaceous materials on the FST markedly enhanced the photodegradation of toxic 2-CP.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125524
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • 2-Chlorophenol
  • Carbonaceous
  • Fibrous silica titania
  • Orientation
  • Visible light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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