3 Scopus citations


Given the explosive proliferation of today's electronics, achieving high-energy, high-power, and long-cycling electrochemical energy storage devices is critically needed. Supercapacitors made of biomass-derived carbon are high-power devices that store electrical energy at the electrode-electrolyte interface. However, energy densities of commercial supercapacitors that use active carbon are constrained by their small specific surface area, poor porosity, and low electrochemical activity. Numerous methods have been tried recently to enhance the capacitive performance of carbon-based electrodes. More researchers are becoming aware of the high porosity and massive surface area of carbon-based supercapacitors. Due to the growing need to preserve a sustainable environment, research on carbon-based materials has increasingly focused on biomass-based materials. The two main substances that make up lignocellulose biomass are cellulose and lignin. Due to their availability and sustainability, lignin and cellulose-based supercapacitors are economically practical and environmentally friendly. Electrospun cellulose, lignin, and lignin/cellulose nanofibers have all been thoroughly researched as supercapacitor electrode materials. Biomass-derived materials could be efficiently used as electrolytes, separators, and packaging materials for supercapacitors. As well as having numerous advantages, biomass-based supercapacitors are facing various challenges. This chapter will carefully examine the future directions and challenges in biomass-based supercapacitors. Future research challenges, ideas, and directions were also extensively explored. Additionally, the usage of sophisticated supercapacitors is discussed, along with current difficulties and potential directions for future study. There are still some challenging issues that need to be overcome to successfully utilize biomass for developing excellent supercapacitors. By considering various important aspects such as reducing the temperature to get excellent carbon for supercapacitors, unifying the methods for membrane preparation from biomass, providing enough concentration in developing high-performance electrolytes from biomass, developing the simple method for packaging materials, scaling up in an easy way with low cost, recycling the generated gas during pyrolysis as fuel, focusing on techno-economic analysis, preparing compatible supercapacitors for use in various instruments e.g. heart monitors, overcoming safety concerns (e.g. minimizing the heat generation), and minimizing IR drop would bring up biomass-based supercapacitors to a commercial level. Therefore, this systematic study will serve as a resource for other researchers interested in developing biomass-based supercapacitors as an alternative to conventional supercapacitors and batteries made of biomass materials.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiomass-Based Supercapacitors
Subtitle of host publicationDesign, Fabrication and Sustainability
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9781119866435
ISBN (Print)9781119866404
StatePublished - 20 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 John Wiley and Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Biomass
  • Challenges
  • Future directions
  • Porous carbon
  • Supercapacitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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