Fabrication of nano-grained Ti-Nb-Zr biomaterials using spark plasma sintering

M. A. Hussein, C. Suryanarayana, N. Al-Aqeeli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Nanostructured near-β Ti-20Nb-13Zr at % alloy with non-toxic elements and enhanced mechanical properties has been synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nanocrystalline powders obtained by mechanical alloying. The consolidated bulk product was characterized by density measurements and Vickers hardness (HV), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for structural details. The temperature during spark plasma sintering was varied between 800 and 1200. °C, while the heating rate and holding time of 100°K/min and 10. min were maintained constant in all the experiments. The effect of SPS temperature on the densification, microstructure, and HV was discussed. The results show that a nearly full density structure was obtained after SPS at 1200. °C. The microstructure of the obtained alloy is a duplex structure with the α-Ti (hcp) region having an average size of 70-140. nm, surrounding the β-Ti (bcc) matrix. The obtained alloy was chemically homogenized with a micro hardness value, HV of 660. The developed nanostructured Ti-20Nb-13Zr alloy is suggested for biomedical use as in implant material in dental and orthopedic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-700
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials and Design
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanical alloying
  • Nanomaterials
  • Spark plasma sintering
  • Ti-Nb-Zr alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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