Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Porous Membrane Packed Dried Fish Samples: Method Development and Greenness Evaluation

Muhammad Sajid*, Khalid Alhooshani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was utilized for extraction of organochlorine pesticides from membrane-protected dried fish samples. The dried fish samples were packed inside a porous membrane bag which was immersed in a solvent and subjected to ultrasonication. After the extraction process, the sample-containing bag was separated from the extract. Since samples were packed inside the membrane, their separation did not require centrifugation or filtration. Moreover, the complex components of the biota matrix may also retain inside the porous membrane bag, alleviating the requirement of extract cleanup before analysis. The parameters that can affect the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction of membrane-protected dried fish samples were suitably optimized. These parameters include the extraction solvent and its volume, the sample amount, ultrasound intensity and extraction time. Under the optimum extraction conditions, good linearity was achieved for all the tested organochlorine pesticides, with the coefficients of determination (R2) higher than 0.9922 for the linear ranges from 5–1000, 10–1000 and 20–1000 ng/g. The values of intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were ≤13.8%. The limit of detection ranged from 1.5 to 6.8 ng/g. The spiked relative recoveries were in the range of 87.3–104.2%. This method demonstrated excellent figures of merit and could find potential applications in routine analytical laboratories. Finally, the greenness of this method was evaluated using the green analytical procedure index and analytical greenness calculator metrics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • food analysis
  • membrane-protected extraction
  • organic solvent-enhanced extraction
  • pesticide analysis
  • ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Filtration and Separation


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