Globally, there has been a significant increase in awareness of the adverse effects of chemicals with known or suspected endocrine-acting properties on human health. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) mainly occurs by ingestion and to some extent by inhalation and dermal uptake. Although it is difficult to assess the full impact of human exposure to EDCs, it is well known that timing of exposure is of importance and therefore infants are more vulnerable to EDCs and are at greater risk compared to adults. In this regard, infant safety and assessment of associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and growth during infancy and childhood has been received considerable attention in the last years. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a current update on the evidence from biomonitoring studies on the exposure of infants to EDCs and a comprehensive view of the uptake, the mechanisms of action and biotransformation in baby/human body. Analytical methods used and concentration levels of EDCs in different biological matrices (e.g., placenta, cord plasma, amniotic fluid, breast milk, urine, and blood of pregnant women) are also discussed. Finally, key issues and recommendations were provided to avoid hazardous exposure to these chemicals, taking into account family and lifestyle factors related to this exposure.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.
- Endocrine disrupting compounds
- Harmful environment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal