Electricity Generation in Saudi Arabia: Tracing Opportunities and Challenges to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Syed Masiur Rahman, Fahad Saleh Mohammed Al-Ismail, Md Ershadul Haque, Md Shafiullah*, Md Rashidul Islam, Md Tareq Chowdhury, Md Shafiul Alam, Shaikh Abdur Razzak, Amjad Ali, Zaid Ahsan Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The electrical energy demand of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been observing a surging growth due to high population growth and urbanization rate. The generation mostly comes from the burning of petroleum products. The electricity sector emits more than one-third of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) of the country. Thus, it is essential to reduce the GHG from the electricity generation sector to maintain sustainability. This article mainly concentrates on the existing electricity generation and focuses on the Kingdom’s GHG emissions mitigation initiatives. Although the use of natural gas and the number of cogeneration plants have been increased in electricity generation, the country has also been focusing on other initiatives, including the adaptation of combined cycle power plants, carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration (CCUS), renewable and alternative energy sources, and various utility-scale energy efficiency measures. The ambitious and inspirational renewable energy (RE) targets of the Saudi Vision 2030 will significantly facilitate GHG emission avoidance, which will support the Kingdom to meet its Nationally Determined Contributions. This article recommends various mitigation measures, including the usage of the efficient internal combustion engine, poly-generation, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, deployment of renewable resources in the distribution and microgrid systems, bio-mass engine, and ocean thermal energy conversion plants. The decision-makers and the researchers will find the discussions and recommendations helpful in determining suitable and appropriate mitigation initiatives and technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116163-116182
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. All rights reserved.


  • Carbon capture
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • climate change mitigation
  • electricity generation
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • renewable energy
  • review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (all)
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Computer Science (all)


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