This article proposes a comprehensive ADN expansion planning model that includes both WAs and NWAs. The primary motivation is to find the optimal sizing and siting of NWAs while considering WAs such that the ADN's dynamically growing electrical load and EV demand are met while maintaining network limits. Given the flexibility of NWA resources, they can provide the support needed to the ADN (e.g., congestion relief and voltage support) while providing ASs to the grid. The proposed model is posed as a mixed-integer linear program to maximize the overall profits of the DSO. WAs considered include adding/upgrading lines and upgrading the substation by installing transformers, while NWAs include sizing and siting of distributed RESs, TGs, and BESSs with considering EVCSs supply the EVs. Simulation results demonstrate the financial benefits of simultaneously considering WAs and NWAs. They also verify the feasibility of having the DSO participate in the ASs market utilizing its flexible resources. To further assess the proposed model characteristics, additional cases and sensitivity analyses are conducted.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2007-2012 IEEE.
- Ancillary services (ASs)
- distribution system oper- ator (DSO)
- dynamic planning
- mixed-integer linear programming (MILP)
- nonwire alternatives (NWAs)
- wire alternatives
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Information Systems
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Computer Science Applications