Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Evolution in design, application areas, and green aspects

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38 Scopus citations


Since its development in 2006, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has witnessed many improvements in the design of extraction devices, extractant dispersion strategies, choice of extraction and dispersive solvents, and phase separation approaches. It has also been combined with other extraction techniques to extend its application to more complicated matrices. Many developments have been made concerning simultaneous derivatization, entire procedure automation, and coupling with analytical instrumentation. The main objective of these changes was to resolve a certain issue with the existing design or procedure or make the extraction process and analysis relatively easier, faster, or greener. This review aims to provide an overview of the evolution of DLLME over the years and highlights the scenarios where different formats can be applied, and their advantages and limitations have been critically appraised.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116636
JournalTrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Extraction solvents
  • Green analytical chemistry
  • Microextraction
  • Miniaturization
  • Sample preparation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy


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