Digital twins in cyber effects modelling of IoT/CPS points of low resilience

Gregory Epiphaniou*, Mohammad Hammoudeh, Hu Yuan, Carsten Maple, Uchenna Ani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The exponential increase of data volume and velocity have necessitated a tighter linkage of physical and cyber components in modern Cyber–physical systems (CPS) to achieve faster response times and autonomous component reconfiguration. To attain this degree of efficiency, the integration of virtual and physical components reinforced by artificial intelligence also promises to improve the resilience of these systems against organised and often skillful adversaries. The ability to visualise, validate, and illustrate the benefits of this integration, while taking into account improvements in cyber modelling and simulation tools and procedures, is critical to that adoption. Using Cyber Modelling and Simulation (M&S) this study evaluates the scale and complexity required to achieve an acceptable level of cyber resilience testing in an IoT-enabled critical national infrastructure (CNI). This research focuses on the benefits and challenges of integrating cyber modelling and simulation (M&S) with digital twins and threat source characterisation methodologies towards a cost-effective security and resilience assessment. Using our dedicated DT environment, we show how adversaries can utilise cyber–physical systems as a point of entry to a broader network in a scenario where they are trying to attack a port.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102744
JournalSimulation Modelling Practice and Theory
StatePublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has been supported by the PETRAS National Centre of Excellence for IoT Systems Cybersecurity, which has been funded by the UK EPSRC under grant number EP/S035362/1 . The authors would like to also thank Blueskytec and Schneider Electric for their invaluable support as part of this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • CPS
  • Cyber M&S
  • Cyber resilience
  • Digital twins
  • IoT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Hardware and Architecture


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