Development of Membranes and Separators to Inhibit Cross-Shuttling of Sulfur in Polysulfide-Based Redox Flow Batteries: A Review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The global rapid transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources necessitates the implementation of long-duration energy storage technologies owing to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Therefore, the deployment of grid-scale energy storage systems is inevitable. Sulfur-based batteries can be exploited as excellent energy storage devices owing to their intrinsic safety, low cost of raw materials, low risk of environmental hazards, and highest theoretical capacities (gravimetric: 2600 Wh/kg and volumetric: 2800 Wh/L). However, sulfur-based batteries exhibit certain scientific limitations, such as polysulfide crossover, which causes rapid capacity decay and low Coulombic efficiency, thereby hindering their implementation at a commercial scale. In this review article, we focus on the latest research developments between 2012–2023 to improve the separators/membranes and overcome the shuttle effect associated with them. Various categories of ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in redox batteries, particularly polysulfide redox flow batteries and lithium-sulfur batteries, are discussed in detail. Furthermore, advances in IEM constituents are summarized to gain insights into different fundamental strategies for attaining targeted characteristics, and a critical analysis is proposed to highlight their efficiency in mitigating sulfur cross-shuttling issues. Finally, future prospects and recommendations are suggested for future research toward the fabrication of more effective membranes with desired properties.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202300171
JournalChemical Record
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • Ceramics
  • Cross-shuttling
  • Ion Exchange Membranes
  • Nafion
  • Polysulfide
  • Redox Flow Batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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