Designing Highly Efficient Temperature Controller for Nanoparticles Hyperthermia

Adeel Bashir, Sikandar Khan*, Salem Bashmal, Naveed Iqbal, Sami Ullah, Liaqat Ali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents various control system design techniques for temperature control of Magnetic Fluid hyperthermia. The purpose of this research is to design a cost-effective, efficient, and practically implementable temperature controller for Magnetic Fluid hyperthermia, which is presently under research as a substitute to the radiation and chemotherapy treatment of cancer. The principle of this phenomenon centers on the greater sensitivity of tumor cells to changes in temperature in comparison to healthy cells. Once the nanoparticles reach the desired tissue, it can then be placed in a varying magnetic field to dissipate the heat locally by raising the temperature to 45 °C in order to kill cancerous cells. One of the challenging tasks is to maintain the temperature strictly at desired point i.e., 45 °C. Temperature controller for magnetic fluid hyperthermia provides the tight control of temperature in order to avoid folding of proteins and save the tissues around the cancerous tissue from getting destroyed. In contrast with most of the existing research on this topic, which are based on linear control strategies or their improved versions, the novelty of this research lies in applying nonlinear control technique like Sliding Mode Control (SMC) to accurately control the temperature at desired value. A comparison of the control techniques is presented in this paper, based on reliability, robustness, precision and the ability of the controller to handle the non-linearities that are faced during the treatment of cancer. SMC showed promising results in terms of settling time and rise time. Steady state error was also reduced to zero using this technique.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3539
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • PID controller
  • control system hyperthermia
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • nanoparticles hyperthermia
  • robust control
  • temperature controller

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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