Desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia: Human exposure and risk analysis from disinfection byproducts

Imran Rahman Chowdhury, Shakhawat Chowdhury*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Saudi Arabia produces the largest amount of desalinated water as a single country. The desalinated water is typically blended with treated groundwater, pH adjusted and chlorinated prior to supply to the communities. The desalinated seawater and/or blended water contains various types of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which may induce cancer risks to human through lifetime exposure. In this study, occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs) in desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia were investigated and their exposure and risks were predicted. The chronic daily intakes of CHCl3, BDCM, DBCM and CHBr3 were estimated to be 8.38×10-5, 7.57×10-5, 2.54×10-5 and 4.32×10-4 mg/kg-day respectively. The overall cancer risk was 1.78×10-5 with the range of 7.40×10-7 - 9.26×10-5 and the average hazard index was 3.49×10-2 with the range of 1.20×10-3 - 2.34×10-1. The loss of disability adjusted life years (DALY) were estimated to be 25.1 per year and the average cancer risk had 8.48×10-7 DALY per person per year. The financial burden was estimated to be US$2.72 million with the range of US$2.52-2.91 million. The findings may assist in better understanding and reducing cancer risks from DBPs in desalinated and blended water.

Original languageEnglish
Article number05002
JournalMATEC Web of Conferences
StatePublished - 9 Aug 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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