Naef A.A. Qasem, Muhammad M. Generous, Bilal A. Qureshi, Syed M. Zubair*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The density of saline water is a critical thermodynamic property for designing and rating all the relevant processes, including desalination. It is a reciprocate of the specific volume and important for thermal–hydraulic performance. This chapter introduces the thermodynamic approaches, multicomponent models, correlation, and data that are used to estimate the saline water density at different salinity, temperature, and pressure values. Experimental data of seawater density are used to compare the estimated density values from the correlations and methods and assess their accuracy. Some correlations and methods are recommended based on their accuracy and operating conditions. Besides, the codes of methods used to calculate the density are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Water
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages37
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NameSpringer Water
VolumePart F1299
ISSN (Print)2364-6934
ISSN (Electronic)2364-8198

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Correlations
  • Density
  • Methods
  • Saline water
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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