Data-Driven Optimal Battery Storage Sizing for Grid-Connected Hybrid Distributed Generations Considering Solar and Wind Uncertainty

Abdul Rauf, Mahmoud Kassas, Muhammad Khalid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


A large-scale renewable-based sustainable power system requires multifaced techno-economic optimization and energy penetration. Due to the volatile and non-periodic nature of renewable energy, the uncertainty of renewables combined with load uncertainties significantly impacts the operational efficiency of renewable integration. The complexities in balancing demand, generation, and maintaining system reliability have introduced new challenges in the current distribution system. Most of the associated challenges can be effectively reduced by using a battery energy storage system (BESS) and the right techniques for handling uncertainties. In this paper, a distributionally robust optimization (DRO) technique with a linear decision rule is formulated for the unit commitment (UC) framework for optimal scheduling of a distribution network that consists of a wind farm, solar PV, a distributed generator (DG), and BESS. To cut the energy cost per unit, BESS plays an important role by storing energy at an off-peak time for on-peak-time use with relatively lower prices. For the all-time minimum overall systems cost, the distribution system requires an optimal size of the BESS to be connected to provide optimal scheduling of DGs. Three case studies are formulated using an IEEE 14 bus system (converted from MW to kW to match the BESS size available in the market) and solved with the proposed distributionally robust optimization technique to achieve the maximum operating point with an optimal capacity of BESS, i.e., wind, solar and hybrid. Each case study has its own optimal 30-min interval schedule for DGs along with the optimal capacity of BESS. The cost comparison with and without BESS and its impact on the start-up and shut down of DGs is reported with all the dynamic economic dispatch results, including the battery’s state-of-charge profile. The proposed technique can handle the uncertainties in renewables and allows economical energy dispatch and optimal BESS sizing with comparatively lower computational processing and complexities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11002
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • battery energy storage systems
  • distributed generators
  • distributionally robust optimization
  • solar pv uncertainty
  • unit commitment
  • wind-farm uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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