Current advances in syngas (CO + H2) production through bi-reforming of methane using various catalysts: A review

Udit Surya Mohanty*, Muhammad Ali*, Muhammad Rizwan Azhar, Ahmed Al-Yaseri, Alireza Keshavarz, Stefan Iglauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Today, bi - reforming of methane is considered as an emerging replacement for the generation of high-grade synthesis gas (H2:CO = 2.0), and also as an encouraging renewable energy substitute for fossil fuel resources. For achieving high conversion levels of CH4, H2O, and CO2 in this process, appropriate operation variables such as pressure, temperature and molar feed constitution are prerequisites for the high yield of synthesis gas. One of the biggest stumbling blocks for the methane reforming reaction is the sudden deactivation of catalysts, which is attributed to the sintering and coke formation on active sites. Consequently, it is worthwhile to choose promising catalysts that demonstrate excellent stability, high activity and selectivity during the production of syngas. This review describes the characterisation and synthesis of various catalysts used in the bi-reforming process, such as Ni-based catalysts with MgO, MgO–Al2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, SiO2 as catalytic supports. In summary, the addition of a Ni/SBA-15 catalyst showed greater catalytic reactivity than nickel celites; however, both samples deactivated strongly on stream. Ce-promoted catalysts were more found to more favourable than Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst alone in the bi-reforming reaction due to their inherent capability of removing amorphous coke from the catalyst surface. Also, Lanthanum promoted catalysts exhibited greater nickel dispersion than Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst due to enhanced interaction between the metal and support. Furthermore, La2O3 addition was found to improve the selectivity, activity, sintering and coking resistance of Ni implanted within SiO2. Non-noble metal-based carbide catalysts were considered to be active and stable catalysts for bi-reforming reactions. Interestingly, a five-fold increase in the coking resistance of the nickel catalyst with Al2O3 support was observed with incorporation of Cr, La2O3 and Ba for a continuous reaction time of 140 h. Bi-reforming for 200 h with Ni-γAl2O3 catalyst promoted 98.3% conversion of CH4 and CO2 conversion of around 82.4%. Addition of MgO to the Ni catalyst formed stable MgAl2O4 spinel phase at high temperatures and was quite effective in preventing coke formation due to enhancement in the basicity on the surface of catalyst. Additionally, the distribution of perovskite oxides over 20 wt % silicon carbide-modified with aluminium oxide supports promoted catalytic activity. NdCOO3 catalysts were found to be promising candidates for longer bi-reforming operations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32809-32845
Number of pages37
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number65
StatePublished - 21 Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • Bi-reforming
  • Catalytic nickel membrane
  • Ni-based catalysts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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