Cross-Coupled Dynamics and MPA-Optimized Robust MIMO Control for a Compact Unmanned Underwater Vehicle

Ahsan Tanveer, Sarvat Mushtaq Ahmad*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


A compact, 3-degrees-of-freedom (DoF), low-cost, remotely operated unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), or MicroROV, is custom-designed, developed, instrumented, and interfaced with a PC for real-time data acquisition and control. The nonlinear equations of motion (EoM) are developed for the under-actuated, open-frame, cross-coupled MicroROV utilizing the Newton-Euler approach. The cross-coupling between heave and yaw motion, an important dynamic of a class of compact ROVs that is barely reported, is investigated here. This work is thus motivated towards developing an understanding of the physics of the highly coupled compact ROV and towards developing model-based stabilizing controllers. The linearized EoM aids in developing high-fidelity experimental data-driven transfer function models. The coupled heave-yaw transfer function model is improved to an auto-regressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX) model structure. The acquired models facilitate the use of the multi-parameter root-locus (MPRL) technique to design baseline controllers for a cross-coupled multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) MicroROV. The controller gains are further optimized by employing an innovative Marine Predator Algorithm (MPA). The robustness of the designed controllers is gauged using gain and phase margins. In addition, the real-time controllers were deployed on an onboard embedded system utilizing Simulink′s automatic C++ code generation capabilities. Finally, pool tests of the MicroROV demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1411
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • MIMO ROV control
  • MPA optimization
  • cross-coupled mathematical models
  • multi-parameter root locus
  • open-frame compact ROV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ocean Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Cross-Coupled Dynamics and MPA-Optimized Robust MIMO Control for a Compact Unmanned Underwater Vehicle'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this