Correction: Estimating the Total Volume of Running Water Bodies Using Geographic Information System (GIS): A Case Study of Peshawar Basin (Pakistan) (Sustainability, (2022), 14, 3754, 10.3390/su14073754)

Naveed Ahmad, Sikandar Khan*, Muhsan Ehsan, Fayaz Ur Rehman, Abdullatif Al-Shuhail

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

Abstract

The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [1]. The changes are as follows: (1) Replacing the fourth and fifth paragraph in the Introduction section: Most groundwater studies are made with an objective to assess and quantify the groundwater resource. The quantification in terms of the volume involves the amount of water stored inside the specific geological formation and the time it will remain stored in response to the varying recharge and discharge volumes. If precipitation exceeds evaporation rate, then the water that does not run off but infiltrates down can potentially reach the water table and contribute to groundwater. The water-dependent private and public industries are also responsible for water crises. These include marble factories, paper mills, oil industries, and automobile stations. As these industries grow with the passage of time, more water is abstracted from the ground, which causes a further depletion of the groundwater in the vicinity of these areas [19]. The major source of water supplied to the Peshawar basin is the groundwater, which has resulted in a water shortage in the congested settlement of the district. The project area encompasses a major hub and metropolitan city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, where the migration of people from rural areas has put additional strain on the water resources. Rapid increases in population and unplanned industrial development have resulted in the overexploitation of the scarce groundwater resources [20]. The seasonal shortage and lowering of the water table is responsible for the increased pumping cost and electricity. Untreated wastes from the streams become mixed with the Kabul River and the over-pumping may induce more water from the Kabul River, affecting the water quality of the shallow upper layer of the aquifer [21]. Groundwater research at the regional level started in the early 1960s when the water logging problem was raised in Mardan, Charsadda, and areas of the Peshawar district near the Kabul River. The problem was intensified when the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) introduced the Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP). TheWAPDA (1963) made a detailed report on the Sherkera tube well irrigation project, a place located approximately 30 km from the Peshawar district. This detailed groundwater investigation report included five holes, of which two were converted into tube wells for pumping tests. The report contains useful information about groundwater levels, volume of the water stored, and annual recharge of that specific area [22]. Malik [23] carried out a detailed study of the records of the groundwater level of the entire Peshawar vale, including the areas of Peshawar, Mardan, Swabi, Nowshera, and Charsadda. In this report, results of the development activities by the Water and Soil Investigation Department (WASID) in the years 1963 to 1966 were discussed. Water levels obtained from the 88 wells and monitored from 1920 to 1963 were also discussed and analyzed in this report. With: The majority of freshwater research is conducted worldwide to assess and quantify the groundwater resource. The amount of water retained inside aquifers is used to quantify the volume of water. The stored water in aquifers results from more precipitation, low evaporation, and gentile slop that will facilitate the infiltration process, and ultimately, fresh surface water becomes part of the groundwater. The unmanaged and unplanned use of groundwater (GW) by the public as well as private industry, e.g., marble, and lack of adequate infrastructure will cause water scarcity in the region. Rapid population growth causes urbanization and industrialization, which causes the depletion of the GW table worldwide and in the study area. GW is considered a major source of fresh water in the study area (the Peshawar basin). The storage of GW will ultimately affect the daily life of the settled population. The research area is a densely populated and economic hub, and most of the rural population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has migrated to Peshawar city [19,20]. The shortage of GW occurs during dry periods due to the drawdown of the water table, which increases the pumping cost. In addition, previous studies and electronic media reports indicate that in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, untreated waste and garbage mix with the Kabul River. Over-pumping, which induces recharging in the Kabul River catchment area’s shallow aquifers, is the main reason for reduced water quality [19,21]. Along the Kabul River, the waterlogging problem in Mardan, Charsadda, and sections of the Peshawar district prompted regional groundwater studies in the early 1960s. As a result, theWater and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) launched a detailed investigation to cater to the water logging issue and a hydrogeological investigation to evaluate GW. This study analyzed borehole data of drilled water wells for agriculture and domestic applications. This report is very informative, as it describes different groundwater levels, different water storage volumes, and the per annum recharge of the particular area. Malik [23] thoroughly examined the groundwater level records for the entire Peshawar valley, including the study area. (2) Replacing the second paragraph in the Discussion section: The agricultural component was the biggest land cover, and the irrigation is mainly done from surface canals and tributaries, which infiltrate down into the groundwater and raise the water table. However, in the past couple of decades, the construction of rigid concrete structures in the form of roads, buildings, and commercial areas in urban and rural sectors has increased without considering the recharge areas. The water infiltration into the ground has been excessively blocked, which can affect the vertical position of the groundwater table. Groundwater research at the regional level started in the early 1960s when the waterlogging problem was raised in Mardan, Swabi, Charsadda, Nowshera, and the areas of Peshawar district near the Kabul River because of the rapid urbanization of the Peshawar basin. With: In a nutshell, we concluded that the agricultural component contributes a major role in water table recharging based on our study and the previous literature. In Pakistan, most surface water is used for agricultural purposes. Through infiltration, irrigation water indirectly raises the water table in the command area. It has been observed based on LULC analysis that the buildup area increases, which reduces the GW recharge zone as a result of water table drawdown in the project area. The published literature on the study area also supports our findings and results. For example, in a 1960WAPDA study, waterlogging in the Peshawar basin was reported due to rapid and unplanned urbanization. (3) Replacing the Reference [19] 19. Kazmi, S.A.T. Groundwater investigation in Warsak reregulating reservoir scheme area. WASID 1968, 16, 20–61. With: 19. Ali, N. Groundwater Assessment of the Peshawar District and Its Potential for Future Demand; College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University: Adelaide, Australia, 2018. The authors apologize for any inconvenience caused and state that the scientific conclusions are unaffected. The original publication has also been updated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8750
JournalSustainability
Volume14
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

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  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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