Comparing risk of disinfection byproducts in drinking water under variable scenarios of seawater intrusion

Shakhawat Chowdhury*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The higher levels of halides in seawater increase bromide and iodide in the coastal aquifers, leading to higher concentrations of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The populations in the coastal areas are susceptible to increased concentrations of DBPs while many DBPs are cyto- and genotoxic to mammalian cells, and are possible/probable human carcinogens. The implications of seawater intrusion on the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), and the risks were analyzed by adding 0.0–2.0 % seawater (SW) (by volume) and chlorine to groundwater. Bromide and iodide concentrations in groundwater (0.0 %SW) were observed as 42.5 and non-detected (ND) μg/L respectively. With 2.0 %SW, these were spiked up to 1100 and 2.1 μg/L respectively. The most common THMs (THM4), iodinated THMs (I-THMs) and HAAs were 30.4, 0.13 and 27.9 μg/L for 0.0 % SW respectively. With 2.0 %SW, these values were 106.3, 1.6 and 72.9 μg/L, respectively. At 0.0 %SW, averages of chronic daily intakes (CDI) for THM4, HAAs and I-THMs were 2.61 × 10−4, 2.26 × 10−4 and 7.69 × 10−7 mg/kg/day respectively, which were increased to 9.97 × 10−4, 4.70 × 10−4 and 9.47 × 10−6 mg/kg/day, respectively for 2.0 %SW. For 0.0 %SW, overall cancer risks from few DBPs was 3.09 × 10−5 (6.46 × 10−6 - 7.23 × 10−5) while at 1.0 % and 2.0 %SW, risks were 4.88 × 10−5 (1.26 × 10−5–1.08 × 10−4) and 4.11 × 10−5 (1.21 × 10−5–9.28 × 10−5) respectively. The reduction of risks for 2.0 %SW was due to the increase of bromoform (TBM), and decrease in bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) at 2.0 %SW. The disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss showed an increasing trend from 0.0 %SW (DALY: 77.30) to 1.0 %SW (DALY: 122.0) while an increase to 2.0 %SW showed a decrease in DALY (DALY: 102.8). Future study on toxicity of other regulated and emerging DBPs is warranted to better predict cancer risks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number161772
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume870
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Brominated DBPs, iodinated DBPs
  • Seawater intrusion
  • cancer risks, disability-adjusted life years

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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