CODE: Crowd-optimized design of environments

Brandon Haworth*, Muhammad Usman, Glen Berseth, Mahyar Khayatkhoei, Mubbasir Kapadia, Petros Faloutsos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


We present crowd-optimized design of environments (CODE): a “crowd-aware” computational tool for designing environments (e.g., building floor plans). Our system analyses the impact of newly added environment elements (e.g., pillars or doorways) on the resulting crowd flow, using current-generation crowd simulators. The results of the simulation are used to provide feedback to the designer in terms of aggregate statistics and heat maps. Additionally, our system is able to “automatically” optimize the placement of environment elements to maximize crowd flow in egress scenarios, while satisfying constraints that are imposed by the designer. Using CODE, architects and environment designers can iteratively refine upon their original design to quickly accommodate the dynamic properties of crowd simulations in an interactive fashion. CODE is modular and flexible so that designers may build environments, select from different crowd simulators, and specify varying crowd configurations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1749
JournalComputer Animation and Virtual Worlds
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the NSERC Discovery Grant Program.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


  • architectural optimization
  • crowd simulation
  • user-in-the-loop design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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