Classical Methods for Obtaining Essential Oils

Syed Raza Ali Naqvi*, Hiba Shahid, Ameer Fawad Zahoor, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Usman, Ali Abbas, Mamoon Ur Rasheed, Tanvir Hussain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


An extraction technique is a separation process, used to separate bioactive components from different parts of plant. Mainly, plant extracts are of two types, volatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons. Volatile hydrocarbon that might be saturated or unsaturated, are commonly known as essential oil which bear specific odor. Their extraction from plant sources commonly conducted with classical methods and rarely using modern techniques on large scale. Classical methods own to its simplicity and handling, and cost-effectiveness mostly preferred in all sectors of extracting essential oils (laboratories to industrial scales). These include mechanical treatment, hydro-distillation (water distillation, and steam distillation), cold pressing, solvent extraction, and soxhlet extraction. Choice of the method depends upon the nature of essential oil, solvent used and sensitivity of the process. However, none of the process is ideal; the researcher or industrialist has to compromise one or other parameter such as yield, time, or quality. The aim of this book chapter is to describe different classic methods of extracting essential oil and their efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEssential Oils
Subtitle of host publicationExtraction Methods and Applications
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9781119829614
ISBN (Print)9781119829355
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Scrivener Publishing LLC.


  • Essential oil
  • cold pressing
  • hydro-distillation
  • solvent extraction
  • soxhlet extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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