The linear economy uses virgin inputs, employs the take-make-discard cycle, and produces waste materials. The circular economy improves the system by reusing, recycling, and recovering resources. Particularly for industrial materials like supercapacitors (SCs), cyclic material flow is required to address resource scarcity. It is a growing market. As a result, sustainable energy sources like biomass are vital. The circular economy improves sustainable bioproducts by producing different elements of SCs, including electrodes, electrolytes, separators, binding materials, current collectors, and packaging materials. The elements can be made from carbon, cellulose, gelatin, protein, fibre, and other biomasses. The unused biomass could be recycled or used for energy and water treatment after material recovery. In contrast, landfilling emits greenhouse gases, and traditional open burning emits pollutants. Therefore, adopting a circular economy will also reduce emissions by preventing methane formation from biomass degradation, and particulate and ash creation from burning. The global warming potential of methane is significantly higher than that of carbon dioxide. Biowaste generated from the manufacturing process of SCs can be recycled to make activated carbon (AC). Many methods exist for preparing various types of biomass for AC production, potentially reducing waste. Biomass-activated carbon is an ecofriendly and cost-effective product, a carbon dioxide absorber and SC electrodes can be produced by thermochemical conversion of biomass. Comparing the costs of various carbon activation processes, resource management, and economic feasibility should yield a cost-effective alternative biomass utilization system. The cost of producing activated carbon, the biomass used, and other factors are essential. Relevant research should be continued to establish an economically viable and environmentally friendly manufacturing approach for using biomass in SCs, considering a comprehensive lifecycle approach starting with the product design to ensure the principles of the circular economy.
|Title of host publication
|Subtitle of host publication
|Design, Fabrication and Sustainability
|Number of pages
|Published - 20 Jul 2023
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 John Wiley and Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Agricultural waste
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Chemistry
- General Chemical Engineering