Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) based state assignment for area minimization of sequential circuits

Aiman H. El-Maleh*, Ahmad T. Sheikh, Sadiq M. Sait

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


State assignment (SA) for finite state machines (FSMs) is one of the main optimization problems in the synthesis of sequential circuits. It determines the complexity of its combinational circuit and thus area, delay, testability and power dissipation of its implementation. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a non-deterministic heuristic that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. PSO optimizes a problem by having a population of candidate solutions called particles, and moving them around in the search-space according to a simple mathematical formulae. In this paper, we propose an improved binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness in solving the state assignment problem in sequential circuit synthesis targeting area optimization. It will be an evident that the proposed BPSO algorithm overcomes the drawbacks of the original BPSO algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BPSO algorithm in comparison to other BPSO variants reported in the literature and in comparison to Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Evolution (SimE) and deterministic algorithms like Jedi and Nova.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4832-4840
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Soft Computing Journal
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals under project # SAB-2005/09.


  • Area minimization
  • Binary PSO
  • Heuristics
  • Non-determinism
  • PSO
  • State assignment (SA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software


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