Associated health risk assessment due to exposure to BTEX compounds in fuel station workers

Iskandar Muda, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi*, Arefeh Sepahvad, Ali Farhadi, Rasha Fadhel Obaid, Masoume Taherian, Najeh Alali, Shakhawat Chowdhury, Majid Farhadi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The purpose of this review study was to assess the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds in gas station workers and operators. The main components of BTEX compounds are Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene and Xylene. Petroleum, coal large quantities in crude oil and its products are the most important sources of BTEX compounds. These compounds have both high solubility (found in surface and underground waters) and evaporate quickly. Gas stations are one of the most important sources of emission of these compounds in communities. Workers who work in these places have a lot of exposure to these compounds. Exposure to these dangerous compounds can cause many problems for workers. This study was a narrative review article. According to different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, Cochran and Science Direct, 451 articles were retrieved. 55 full-text articles entered into the analysis process. Finally, 32 articles were selected in this study. The search was restricted to English-language papers published between 1 February 1995 and 13 August 2022. The results of our study showed that the carcinogenic risk (ILCR) for gas station workers in Bangkok (1.82 ∗ 10-4 - 2.50 ∗ 10-4), Shiraz (6.49∗ 10-7 - 1.27 ∗ 10-5), Brazil (1.82 ∗ 10-4), Ardabil (390∗ 10-6 ± 1884 ∗ 10-6) and Johannesburg (3.78 ∗ 10-4) was high. The non-cancer risk for oil industry workers of Dilijan (Iran) who were exposed to toluene was also reported in the range of 10-6∗ 176. The health of gas station workers is affected by exposure to BTEX and gasoline vapor emissions. According to the result this study, BTEX compounds cause genotoxic changes, chromosomal and genetic abnormalities. Genotoxicity at high levels in gas station workers can cause cancerous and non-cancerous risks. Improving the production process of diesel fuel and gasoline in refineries, using periodical examinations of workers and operators at gas and fuel stations, using Euro 4 and 5 fuels, and replacing worn out cars can play an important role in reducing the emission of BTEX compounds and thus reducing health risks and carcinogenic.

Original languageEnglish
JournalReviews on Environmental Health
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.


  • BTEX
  • carcinogenic risks
  • gas station
  • occupational exposure
  • workers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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