Artificial-Intelligence-Based Models Coupled with Correspondence Analysis Visualization on ART—Cases from Gombe State, Nigeria: A Comparative Study

Kabiru Bala, Ilker Etikan, A. G. Usman, S. I. Abba*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the common hope for HIV/AIDS-treated patients. Total commitments from individuals and the entire community are the major challenges faced during treatment. This study investigated the progress of ART in the Federal Teaching Hospital in Gombe state, Nigeria by using various records of patients receiving treatment in the ART hospital unit. We combined artificial intelligence (AI)-based models and correspondence analysis (CA) techniques to predict and visualize the progress of ART from the beginning to the end. The AI models employed are artificial neural networks (ANNs), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) and support-vector machines (SVMs) and a classical linear regression model of multiple linear regression (MLR). According to the outcome of this study, ANFIS in both training and testing outperformed the remaining models given the R2 (0.903 and 0.904) and MSE (7.961 and 3.751) values, revealing that any increase in the number of years of taking ART medication will provide HIV/AIDS-treated patients with safer and elongated lives. The contingency results for the CA and the chi-square test did an excellent job of capturing and visualizing the patients on medication, which gave similar results in return, revealing there is a significant association between ART drugs and the age group, while the association between ART drugs and marital status (93.7%) explained a higher percentage of variation compared with the remaining variables.

Original languageEnglish
Article number715
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Gombe state
  • Nigeria
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • artificial intelligence
  • correspondence analysis
  • protease inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Paleontology


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